Is the first mortality cause in Western society
Ischaemic or ischemic heart disease (IHD), or myocardial ischaemia, is a disease characterized by ischaemia (reduced blood supply) of the heart muscle, usually due to coronary artery disease (atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries). Its risk increases with age, smoking, eating meat,[1] hypercholesterolaemia (high cholesterol levels), diabetes, and hypertension (high blood pressure), and is more common in men and those who have close relatives with ischaemic heart disease.
Symptoms of stable ischaemic heart disease include angina (characteristic chest pain on exertion) and decreased exercise tolerance. Unstable IHD presents itself as chest pain or other symptoms at rest, or rapidly worsening angina. Diagnosis of IHD is with an electrocardiogram, blood tests (cardiac markers), cardiac stress testing or a coronary angiogram. Depending on the symptoms and risk, treatment may be with medication, percutaneous coronary intervention (angioplasty) or coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG).
It is the most common cause of death in most Western countries, and a major cause of hospital admissions.[2] There is limited evidence for population screening, but prevention (with a healthy diet and sometimes medication for diabetes, cholesterol and high blood pressure) is used both to prevent IHD and to decrease the risk of complications.
Include the loss or diminution of its role both hardening and its lack of consistency
Valvular heart disease is any disease process involving one or more of the valves of the heart (the aortic and mitral valves on the left and the pulmonary and tricuspid valves on the right). Valve problems may be congenital (inborn) or acquired (due to another cause later in life). Treatment may be with medication but often (depending on the severity) involves valve repair or replacement (insertion of an artificial heart valve). Specific situations include those where additional demands are made on the circulation, such as in pregnancy.
Valvular surgery can be performed by minimally invasive techniques, such as with mini sternotomies or video-assisted port-access surgery

Manuel Castella is a Cardiovascular Surgeon and Chief of Cardiac Surgery Section at Hospital Clínic, University of Barcelona, Spain. He graduated from medical school at the Autonomus University of Barcelona in 1992, and received the Degree in Cardiovascular Surgery by the University of Barcelona in 1998. Following a year as Senior Resident at Herzzentrum Bad Oeynhausen, Germany, Dr. Castella was Research Fellow from 2000 to 2002 at the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery at University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) under the direction of Gerald D Buckberg. Dr. Castella was appointed as consultant at Hospital Clinic in July 2001, being Chief of the Cardiac Surgery Unit in September 2009 and Associate Professor of Surgery in the University of Barcelona in July 2011. Dr. Castella became Doctor in Surgery by the University of Barcelona in June 2006 by his research in cardiac and brain ischemia-reperfusion injury studies.

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