Includes the prevention and treatment of venous and arterial thromboembolism.
Myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, mesenteric thrombosis and peripheral artery disease are the consequences of arterial thrombosis (depending on the site of the occlusion). Pulmonary embolism is a consequence of the dettachment of a venous thrombosis.
The accurate detection, prevention and medical treatment of patients at risk are the aims of Vascular Medicine.
STROKE IMAGE
CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE
is a major cause of death and disability in developed countries
Cerebrovascular disease refers to a group of conditions that affect the circulation of blood to the brain, causing limited or no blood flow to affected areas of the brain.

Atherosclerosis is one of the conditions that can cause cerebrovascular disease. During this process, high cholesterol levels coupled with inflammation in areas of the arteries in the brain can cause the cholesterol to build up in the vessel in the form of a thick, waxy plaque. This plaque can limit, or completely obstruct, blood flow to the brain, causing a stroke, transient ischemic attacks, or dementia, which may lead to a variety of other health complications.
What is an Stroke
TREATMENTS
Carotid localization and plaque to be removed
Endarterectomy scheme
  • CAROTID ENDARTERECTOMY
Carotid endarterectomy is an operation during which your vascular surgeon removes the inner lining of your carotid artery if it has become thickened or damaged. This procedure eliminates a substance called plaque from your artery and can restore blood flow. MORE INFORMATION IN VASCULAR WEB: http://www.vascularweb.org/vascularhealth/Pages/carotid-endarterectomy.aspx
Carotid endarterectomy explanation
Currently treatments are also performed by introducing catheters via the femoral artery. They are called angioplasty accompanied by stent implantation. This type of intervention is usually indicated in older patients or more severe comorbidities
blocked arteries image
INTERMITENT CLAUDICATION
IS A WARNING SIGN THAT ARTERIES ARE BLOCKED
Peripheral artery disease is a condition of the blood vessels that leads to narrowing and hardening of the arteries that supply the legs and feet.
The narrowing of the blood vessels leads to decreased blood flow, which can injure nerves and other tissues.Peripheral artery disease is caused by arteriosclerosis, or "hardening of the arteries." This problem occurs when fatty material (plaque) builds up on the walls of your arteries. This causes the arteries to become narrower. The walls of the arteries also become stiffer and cannot widen (dilate) to allow greater blood flow when needed.
As a result, when the muscles of your legs are working harder (such as during exercise or walking) they cannot get enough blood and oxygen. Eventually, there may not be enough blood and oxygen, even when the muscles are resting.



TREATMENTS
Femoro- popliteal bypasses
Bypass femoro-popliteal performed in left leg
  • LOWER LIMB REVASCULARIZATION
Revascularization of the lower limbs consists in improving the distal blow flow . Currently the first choice of revascularization is endovascular recanalization with angioplasty and implantation of a stent . If it is not possible we will perform the ordinary bypass. To perform a bypass is recommended the use of autologous grafts taken from the body as the saphenous vein. However, in some cases it is necessary to use prosthetic material such as Dacron or PTFE.
What is angioplasty and stenting
PAD can progress to dramatic situations such as loss of a limb or part thereof. It is essential to early diagnosis and control of the various risk factors. Of these, diabetes is one of the greatest enemies of the arteries as it not only contributes to progressive arterial obstruction if it affects the sensitivity of the skin making it more prone to injury.
THROMBOEMBOLIC DISEASE
Mean age of patients with pulmonary embolism is 70 years, with similar proportion of men and women.
In Spain there were 22,250 patients with pulmonary embollism during 2010. Of these, 8.9% died during admission.Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are two manifestations of the same disease: venous thromboembolism.

Deep vein thrombosis appears when the blood is clotting inside a vein. It usually occurs in the lower limbs, and it may produce pain, swelling and increased temperature in the calf. But sometimes it is absolutely silent.

As the blood inside a vein runs to the heart, and from the heart to the lungs, when a clot dettaches the vein wall it will go until the pulmonary arteries. Once in the lungs, it occludes one or more arteries: this is a pulmonary embolism.
BUPA explanation video
DVT explanation video
TREATMENTS
  • ANTICOAGULATION IN DVT: LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT HEPARIN
  • NEW ORAL ANTICOAGULANTS
Thrombophilia means a number of abnormalities (congenital or acquired)
associated with a higher risk for thrombosis.Women who are pregnant or taking hormonal therapy have a high risk for thrombosis if they have thrombophilia.
Factor V Leiden and prothrombin mutation are the two congenital thrombophilic defects more common. They may be detected with a simple blood test.
TREATMENTS
  • ANTICOAGULATION IN DVT: LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT HEPARIN
  • NEW ORAL ANTICOAGULANTS
Dr. MANEL MONREAL BOSCH
Dr. MANEL MONREAL BOSCH

Manuel Monreal, MD, Ph.D.
Head of Section, Department of Internal Medicine. Vascular Medicine.
Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol. Badalona (Barcelona). Spain.
Professor of Medicine.
Facultat de Medicina. Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona.

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